Various Beginnings--The Earth Was--A Creative Week For Its
Ordering-- The Length of the Epoch-Days--Prof. Dana's Admission
of Unwarranted Speculations by Scientists--Persistency of
Species Refutes Evolution Theory--Mr. Darwin's Pigeons--A
Theory of Cosmogony-- Loyal Testimonies of Profs. Silliman
and Dana--The First Creative Epoch-Day--The Second Ditto--The
Third Ditto--The Fourth Ditto-- The Fifth Ditto--The Sixth
Ditto--Man, The Lord of Earth, Created in the Dawning of the
Seventh Epoch--Summary of "Meeting Place of Geology and
History," By Sir J. W. Dawson, LL.D., F.R.S.--The Seventh
Epoch-Day of the Creative Week--Its Length--Its Rest--Its
Object and Result--The Grand Jubilee, Celestial and Terrestrial,
Due at Its Close.
are Jehovah's agents, and innumerable his agencies, connected
with one and another feature of his creation; but back of them
all is his own creative wisdom and power. He alone is the Creator,
and, as the Scriptures affirm, "All his work is perfect."
He may permit evil angels and evil men to pervert and misuse
his perfect work; but he assures us that evil shall not for
long be permitted to work blight and injury; and that eventually,
when he shall restrain and destroy evil, we shall discern that
he permitted it only to test, to prove, to refine, to polish
and to make his own holiness, gracious character and plan the
more resplendent in the sight of all his intelligent creatures.
in Genesis we read, "In the beginning God created the heaven
and the earth," we are to remember that this beginning
relates not to the universe, but merely to our planet. Then
it was that "the morning stars sang together" and
all the angelic sons of God "shouted for joy"--when
<PAGE 18> Lord laid the foundations of the
earth and "made the cloud the garment thereof, and thick
darkness its swaddling band." (`Job
38:4-11`) But a still earlier beginning is mentioned
in the Bible; a beginning before the creation of those angelic
sons of God; as we read: "In the beginning was the Word
[Logos], and the Logos was with the God and the Logos
was a God: the same was in the beginning with the
God. All things were made by him, and without him was not anything
made that was made." (`John 1:1-3`)
(See Series V, Chap. 3.) Since Jehovah himself is from everlasting
to everlasting, he had no beginning: the "Only Begotten"
has the high distinction above all others of being "The
beginning of the creation of God"--"first-born of
every creature." (`Rev.
3:14`; `Col. 1:15`)
Other beginnings came in turn as the various angelic orders
were one by one created; and these beginnings were in the past,
so that their hosts could shout for joy when our earth's creations,
related in Genesis, had their beginning.
the Genesis expressions critically, we discern that a distinction
is made between the creation of the heaven and the earth (`verse
1`) and the subsequent regulations, or ordering of these,
and the further creations of vegetable and animal life. It is
these subsequent operations that are described as the divine
work of six epochal days. `Verse 2` tells
us that in the very beginning of the first day of that creative
week the earth was--though without form (order), and
void (empty)--waste, empty and dark. This important item should
be distinctly noted. If recognized, it at once corroborates
the testimony of geology thus far; and, as we shall be obliged
to dispute the deductions of geologists on some points, it is
well that we promptly acknowledge and dismiss whatever does
not need to be contended for in defense of the Bible. The Bible
does not say how long a period elapsed between the beginning
when God created the heaven and the earth, and the beginning
of the creative week used in perfecting it for man: nor do geologists
<PAGE 19> amongst themselves as to the period
of this interval--a few extremists indulge in wild speculations
of millions of years.
then, to the creative period--the ordering of affairs in our
heaven and earth in preparation of the Paradise of God for man's
everlasting home--we note that these "days" are nowhere
declared to be twenty-four-hour days; and, hence, we are not
obliged thus to limit them. We find in the Bible that the word
day stands for epoch, or period. The fact that it is
most frequently used in reference to a twenty-four-hour
period matters nothing, so long as we have the record of "the
day of temptation in the wilderness ...forty years" (`Psa.
95:8-10`), and sometimes a "day" or "time"
representing a year period (`Num.
14:33,34`; `Ezek. 4:1-8`),
and also the Apostle's statement--"A day with the Lord
is as a thousand years." (`2 Pet.
3:8`) Most assuredly these epoch-days were not sun days;
for the record is that the sun was not visible until the fourth
day--the fourth epoch.
believe our readers will agree that although the length of these
epoch-days is not indicated, we will be justified in assuming
that they were uniform periods, because of their close identity
as members of the one creative week. Hence, if we can gain reasonable
proof of the length of one of these days, we will be fully justified
in assuming that the others were of the same duration. We do,
then, find satisfactory evidence that one of these creative
"days" was a period of seven thousand years and, hence,
that the entire creative week would be 7,000 x 7 equals 49,000
years. And although this period is infinitesimal when compared
with some geological guesses, it is, we believe, quite reasonably
ample for the work represented as being accomplished therein--the
ordering and filling of the earth, which already "was"
in existence, but "without form [order], and void [empty]."
Dana, commenting on the data from which scientists draw their
conjectures, and the method of reckoning employed by them says:
calculations of elapsed time from the thickness of formations
there is always great uncertainty, arising from the dependence
of this thickness on a progressing subsidence [regular sinking
of the land]. In estimates made from alluvial deposits [soil
deposited from water], when the data are based on the thickness
of the accumulations in a given number of years--say the last
2,000 years--this source of doubt affects the whole calculation
from its foundation and renders it almost, if not quite, worthless....When
the estimate...is based on the amount of detritus [fine
scourings] discharged by a stream it is of more value; but even
here there is a source of great doubt."
us examine the matter from the standpoint of the Bible, as believing
it to be the divine revelation, and fully persuaded that whatever
discrepancies may be found between the Bible testimony and the
guesses of geologists are the errors of the latter, whose philosophies
have not yet reached a thoroughly scientific basis or development.
is it necessary to suppose that the writer of Genesis knew all
about the matter he records--the length of these days and their
precise results. We accept the Genesis account as a part of
the great divine revelation--the Bible-- and find its sublime
statement in few sentences most remarkably corroborated by most
critical scientific researches. On the contrary, none of the
"religious books" of the heathen contain anything
but absurd statements on this subject.
is a grandeur of simplicity in that opening statement of revelation--"In
the beginning God created." It answers the first inquiry
of reason--Whence came I, and to whom am I responsible? It is
unfortunate indeed that some of the brightest minds of our bright
day have been turned from this thought of an intelligent Creator
to the recognition of a blind force operating under a law of
evolution and survival of the fittest. And, alas! this theory
has not only found general acceptance in the highest institutions
of learning, but is gradually being incorporated into the textbooks
of our common schools.
only a few are yet so bold as totally to deny a Creator;
<PAGE 21> but even the devout, under this
theory, undermine the fabric of their own faith, as well as
that of others, when they claim that creation is merely the
reign of Natural Law. Not to go further back, they surmise that
our sun ejected immense volumes of gases which finally became
consolidated, forming our earth; that by and by protoplasm
formed, a small maggot, a microbe, got a start, they
know not how. They must concede a divine power necessary to
give even this small start of life--but they are industriously
looking for some Natural Law on this also, so as to have no
need at all for a God-Creator. It is claimed that this discovery
is now almost accomplished. These "savants" think
and talk about Nature as instead of God--her works, her laws,
her retributions, etc.--a blind and deaf God indeed!
claim that under Nature's regulations protoplasm evolved
microbe, or maggot, which squirmed and twisted and reproduced
its own species, and then finding use for a tail, developed
one. Later on, one of its still more intelligent offspring concluded
that oars, or fins, would be useful, and developed them. Another,
later on, got chased by a hungry brother and, jumping clear
out of the water, got the idea that the fins further developed
would be wings, and liked the new style, so that he stayed out
of the water, and then decided that legs and toes would be a
convenience and developed them. Others of the family followed
other "notions," of which they seemingly had an inexhaustible
supply, as evidenced by the great variety of animals we see
about us. However, in due time one of these descendants of the
first maggot which had reached the monkey degree of development,
got a noble ideal before his mind--he said to himself, I will
discard my tail, and cease using my hands as feet, and will
shed my coat of hair, and will develop a nose and a forehead
and a brain with moral and reflective organs. I will wear tailor-made
clothing and a high silk hat, and call myself Darwin, LL.D.,
and write a record of my evolution.
Mr. Darwin was an able man is evidenced by his success in foisting
his theory upon his fellowmen. Nevertheless, the devout child
of God, who has confidence in a personal Creator, and who is
not ready hastily to discard the Bible as his revelation, will
soon be able to see the sophistry of Mr. Darwin's theory. It
is not sufficient that Mr. Darwin should note that amongst his
pigeons he was able to develop certain breeds with peculiar
features-- feathers on their legs, crowns on their heads, pouting
throats, etc.; others had done the same with poultry, dogs,
horses, etc., and florists had experimented upon flowers and
shrubs, etc., with similar results. The new thing with Mr. Darwin
was the theory--that all forms of life were evolved
from a common beginning.
Mr. Darwin's experiences with his pigeons, like those of every
other fancy-breeder, must only have corroborated the Bible statement,
that God created every creature after its kind. There
are wonderful possibilities of variety in each kind;
but kinds cannot be mixed nor new kinds formed. The nearest
approach is called "mule-ing"--and all know that new
species thus formed lack ability to perpetuate their kind. Moreover,
Mr. Darwin must have noted, as others have done, that his "fancy"
pigeons needed to be kept carefully separate from others of
their kind, else they would speedily deteriorate to the common
level. But in nature we see the various species, "each
after its kind," entirely separate from each other, and
kept so without any artificial fencing, etc.--kept so by the
law of their Creator. As believers in the personal Creator,
we may rest assured that human speculation has missed the truth
to the extent that it has ignored our God, his wisdom and his
power, as outlined in Genesis.
perhaps, has done more to becloud and undermine faith in God
as the Creator, and in the Genesis account as his revelation,
than has the error of understanding the epoch-days of Genesis
to be twenty-four-hour days. The various stratifications of
rocks and clays prove beyond all
<PAGE 23> controversy that long periods
were consumed in the mighty changes they represent. And when
we find that the Bible teaches an epoch-day we are prepared
to hear the rocks giving testimony in exact accord with the
Bible record, and our faith in the latter is greatly strengthened;
we feel that we are not trusting to our own or other men's guesses,
but to the Word of the Creator, abundantly attested by the facts
Theory of Cosmogony
the benefit of some of our readers, we will briefly state one
of the views of the creative period, known as "The Vailian
Theory," or "Canopy Theory," which specially
appeals to the author: subsequently we will endeavor to trace
a harmony between this view and the narrative of
with the condition mentioned in `Gen.
1:2`, "Now the earth was," waste and
empty and dark, the wise will not attempt to guess that which
God has not revealed respecting how he previously gathered together
earth's atoms. Things unrevealed belong to God, and we do well
to wait patiently for his further revelations in due time. Taking
pick and shovel and a critical eye, man has found that the earth's
crust is composed of various layers, or strata, one over the
other, all of which give evidence of having once been soft and
moist--except the basic rocks upon which these layers, or strata,
are, with more or less regularity, built. These basic rocks
indicate clearly that they were once soft and fluid from intense
heat; and scientists generally agree that not a great way below
the "crust" the earth is still hot and molten.
these basic, igneous rocks--granite, basalt, etc.-- must at
one time have been so hot as to drive out of them all combustible
elements, and since they are the bottom rocks, we are safe in
concluding that there was a period when the whole earth was
at a white heat. At that time, it is reasoned, water and minerals
(now found in the upper layers, or
<PAGE 24> strata, laid down in water) must
have been driven off as gases; and must have constituted an
impenetrable canopy extending for miles around the earth in
every direction. The motion of the earth upon its axis would
extend to these gases surrounding it, and the effect would be
to concentrate them, more particularly over the earth's equator.
As the earth cooled these would cool, and thus be resolved from
gases into solids and liquids, the weightier minerals gravitating
in strata toward the bottom. The earth at that period probably
resembled the present appearance of Saturn with his "rings."
the cooling process advanced, these detached and distant rings
would gradually acquire a different rotative motion from that
of the earth, and thus gravitate closer and closer to her. One
after another these were precipitated upon the earth's surface.
After the formation of the "firmament," or "expanse,"
or "atmosphere," these deluges from descending "rings"
would naturally reach the earth from the direction of the two
poles, where there would be least resistance, because farthest
from the equator, the center of the centrifugal force of the
earth's motion. The breaking down of these "rings,"
long periods apart, furnished numerous deluges, and piled strata
upon strata over the earth's surface. The rush of waters from
the poles toward the equator would distribute variously the
sand and mud and minerals, the water strongly mineralized thus
covering the entire surface of the earth, just as described
at the beginning of the narrative of Genesis.
each of these long "days," of seven thousand years
each, a certain work progressed, as told in Genesis; each possibly
ending with a deluge which worked radical changes and prepared
the way for still further steps of creation and preparation
for man. This Vailian theory assumes that the last of these
"rings" was freest from minerals and all impurities--pure
water; that it had not yet broken and come down in the day of
Adam's creation, but that it completely overspread the earth
as a translucent veil above the atmosphere. It served, as does
the whitened glass of a hot-house,
<PAGE 25> to equalize the temperature--so
that the climate at the poles would be little, if any, different
from that at the equator. Under such equable conditions, tropical
plants would grow everywhere, as geology shows that they did;
and storms which result from rapid changes of temperature must
then have been unknown; and for similar reasons there could
then have been no rain.
Scriptural account agrees with this; declaring that there was
no rain on the earth until the deluge; that vegetation was watered
by a mist rising from the earth--a moist, or humid, hot-house-like
condition. (`Gen. 2:5,6`) Following
the deluge in Noah's day came great changes, accompanied by
a great shortening of the span of human life. With the breaking
of the watery veil the hot-house condition ceased: the equatorial
path of the sun became hotter, while at the poles the change
must have been terrific--an almost instantaneous transition
from a hot-house temperature to arctic coldness.
of this sudden change of temperature have been found in the
arctic region: Two complete mastodons have been found embedded
in clear, solid ice which evidently froze them in quickly. Tons
of elephant tusks have been found in the same frozen Siberia,
too inhospitably cold, within the range of history, for elephants,
mastodons, etc. An antelope was found similarly embedded in
a huge block of ice in that arctic region. That it was suddenly
overwhelmed is clearly demonstrated by the fact that grass was
found in its stomach undigested, indicating that the animal
had eaten it only a few minutes before being frozen to death--and
that in a location where no grass could now grow.
sudden downpour of water--this sudden breaking of the envelope
which held the warmth of the earth and sun equably--produced
the great ice-fields and ice-mountains of the arctic regions,
from which every year hundreds of icebergs break loose and float
southward toward the equator. So far as we can judge, this has
been the procedure for centuries, but is continually growing
less. Here we see the Ice
<PAGE 26> Age, or Glacial Period, of the
geologists, when great icebergs, borne by swift currents, cut
deep crevasses throughout North America, distinctly traceable
in the hills; northwestern Europe, too, bears the same testimony
in its hills. But not so southeastern Europe, Armenia and vicinity--
the cradle of our race, where also the ark was built, and near
which, on Mount Ararat, it finally rested. The testimony of
Prof. Wright and Sir T.W. Dawson, LL.D., F.R.S., is that in
the vicinity of Arabia a general sinking of the earth
and a subsequent rise occurred. The testimony in general would
seem to imply that the ark floated in a comparatively quiet
eddy, aside from the general rush of the waters. This is indicated
by the exceedingly heavy alluvial deposit declared to be present
in all that region. Evidently the whole earth was deluged by
waters from the North and South Poles, while the cradle of the
race was specially dealt with by first depressing, and then
at the proper time elevating it. On this, note the words of
the celebrated geologist, Prof. G.F. Wright, of Oberlin, O.,
College, as reported in the New York Journal, March 30,
1901, as follows:
George Frederick Wright, of Oberlin College, a distinguished
geologist, has returned from Europe. He wrote 'The Ice of North
America' and other geological works, studying and describing
the glacial period. He has been on a scientific tour around
the globe. He passed most of his time studying the geological
formations and signs in Siberia, although his explorations took
him to other parts of Asia and to Africa.
Wright's main object was to answer, if possible, a long-disputed
question among geologists: namely, whether Siberia had ever
been covered with ice, as North America and parts of Europe
had been, during the glacial period.
great many geologists, including many eminent Russian savants,
believe Siberia was covered with ice.
the result of his present studies, Prof. Wright firmly believes
that, at the remote time that North America was covered with
ice, Siberia was covered with water.
the water and the ice were practically phases of the Biblical
read a description of the flood in Genesis, much abbreviated:
the flood was forty days upon the earth and the waters increased
and bore up the ark and it was lifted up above the earth.
the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth: and all the
high hills that were under the whole heaven were covered.
cubits upward did the waters prevail and the mountains were
in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in
the dry land died....And Noah only remained alive and those
that were with him in the ark.
the waters prevailed upon the earth an hundred and fifty days.'
hear what Prof. Wright is quoted as saying:
found no signs of glacial phenomena south of the 56th degree.
North of that I did not go, but from other things I am convinced
that the land was covered with ice, as was our own, where signs
of it are now found as far south as New York.
did not find indications of an extensive subsidence of all that
region, which puts a new light on everything here.
Trebizond, on the shore of the Black Sea, there was evidence
of a depression of 700 feet. This was shown by gravel deposits
on the hills.
the center of Turkestan the waters reached their greatest height,
for there we found these deposits over 2,000 feet above the
Russia is covered with the same black earth deposit that we
found in Turkestan.
were still other evidences of the waters having covered this
portion of the globe. One of these is the presence yet of seals
in Lake Baikal, in Siberia, 1,600 feet above sea level. The
seals which we found are of the Arctic species, and are the
same species as those found in the Caspian Sea.
only theory, therefore, is that they were caught there when
the waters receded. Perhaps the most wonderful discovery of
all was at the town of Kief, on the Nippur river, where stone
implements were found fifty-three feet below the black earth
deposit, showing that the water came there after the age of
enabled us, therefore, to determine the age of this depression.
It shows that since man came there, there has been a depression
of 750 feet at Trebizond, and in Southern Turkestan the waters
were over 2,000 feet deep. The implements found were such as
those made in North America before the glacial period, which
gives good ground for believing that the depression was made
there when the glacial avalanche occurred here.
fact it was, practically, the flood.'"
the end from the beginning, Jehovah so timed the introduction
of man upon the earth that the last of the rings came down in
a deluge just at the proper time to destroy the corrupted race
in Noah's day, and thus to introduce the present dispensation,
known in the Scriptures as "this present evil world."
The removal of the watery envelope not only gave changing seasons
of summer and winter, and opened the way for violent storms,
but it also made possible the rainbow, which was first seen
after the flood, because previously the direct rays of the sun
could not so penetrate the watery canopy as to give the rainbow
effect. `Gen. 9:12-17`
writing the foregoing, we clip from the Scientific American
the following succinct statement from Prof. Vail's own pen:
the Editor of the Scientific American:
have read with great interest in your issue of April 12 the
note on the recent discovery of the body of a mammoth, in cold
storage, by Dr. Herz, in the ice-bound region of Eastern Siberia.
This, it seems to me, is more than a 'Rosetta Stone' in the
path of the geologist. It offers the strongest testimony in
support of the claim that all the glacial epochs and all the
deluges the earth ever saw, were caused by the progressive and
successive decline of primitive earth vapors, lingering about
our planet as the cloud vapors of the planets Jupiter and Saturn
linger about those bodies today.
me to suggest to my brother geologists that remnants of the
terrestrial watery vapors may have revolved about the earth
as a Jupiter-like canopy, even down to very recent geologic
times. Such vapors must fall chiefly in polar lands, through
the channel of least resistance and greatest attraction, and
certainly as vast avalanches of tellurio-cosmic snows. Then,
too, such a canopy, or world-roof, must have tempered the climate
up to the poles, and thus afforded pasturage to the mammoth
and his congeners of the Arctic world--making a greenhouse earth
under a greenhouse roof. If this be admitted, we can place no
limits to the magnitude and efficiency of canopy avalanches
to desolate a world of exuberant life. It seems that Dr. Herz's
mammoth, like many others found buried in glacier ice, with
their food undigested in their stomachs, proves that it was
<PAGE 29> with a crushing fall of snow.
In this case, with grass in its mouth unmasticated, it tells
an unerring tale of death in a snowy grave. If this be conceded,
we have what may have been an all-competent source of glacial
snows, and we may gladly escape the unphilosophic alternative
that the earth grew cold in order to get its casement of snow,
while, as I see it, it got its snows and grew cold.
the igneous age the oceans went to the skies, along with a measureless
fund of mineral and metallic sublimations; and if we concede
these vapors formed into an annular system, and returned during
the ages in grand installments, some of them lingering even
down to the age of man, we may explain many things that are
dark and perplexing today.
far back as 1874 I published some of these thoughts in pamphlet
form, and it is with the hope that the thinkers of this twentieth
century will look after them that I again call up the 'Canopy
Isaac N. Vail."
this general view of creation before our minds, let us now turn
to the Genesis account, and endeavor to harmonize these conjectures
with its statements. First of all we notice that the Creative
Week is divided into four parts: (1) Two days, or epochs (in
our reckoning 2 x 7,000 equals 14,000 years), were devoted to
the ordering of the earth preparatory for animal life. (2) The
next two days, or epochs (in our reckoning another 2 x 7,000
equals 14,000 years additional), were devoted to bringing forward
vegetation and the lowest forms of life--shell-fish, etc.--and
laying down limestone, coal and other minerals. (3) The next
two epoch-days (in our reckoning 2 x 7,000 equals 14,000 years)
brought forward living creatures that move--in the sea
and on the land--vegetation, etc., still progressing, and all
preparing for the introduction of man, the earthly image of
his Creator, "crowned with glory and honor," to be
the king of earth. (4) Man's creation, the final work, came
in the close of the sixth day, or epoch, and the beginning of
the seventh: as it is written--"And on the seventh day
God ended his work which he made, and he rested."
great feature in the structure of the planet corresponds with
the order of events narrated in the sacred history....This history
[the Bible] furnishes a record important alike to philosophy
and religion; and we find in the planet itself the proof that
the [Bible] record is true."
to the account of creation in Genesis, Prof. Dana declares:
this succession we observe not merely an order of events, like
that deduced from science; but there is a system in the arrangement
and a far-reaching prophecy to which philosophy could not have
attained, however instructed."
human mind was witness of the events; and no such mind in the
early age of the world, unless gifted with superhuman
intelligence, could have contrived such a scheme, or would have
placed the creation of the sun, the source of light to the earth,
so long after the creation of light, even on the fourth day;
and what is equally singular, between the creation of
plants and that of animals, when so important to both; and none
could have reached into the depths of philosophy exhibited in
the whole plan."
First Creative Epoch-Day
the spirit of God was brooding over the face of the waters.
And God said, Let there be light. And there was light.
nature and physical cause of light is as yet but imperfectly
comprehended--no satisfactory solution of the query, What is
light? has yet appeared. We do know, however, that it is a prime
essential throughout nature; and we are not surprised to find
it first in the divine order when the time came for divine energy
to operate upon the waste and empty earth to prepare it for
man. The nature of the divine energy represented by "brooding"
would seem to be vitalizing, possibly electrical energies
and lights such as the aurora borealis, or northern lights.
Or, possibly, the energy brought down some of the heavy rings
of aqueous and mineral matter,
<PAGE 31> and thus the light and darkness,
day and night, became distinguishable, though neither stars
nor moon nor sun were in the slightest degree discernible through
the heavy rings, or swaddling bands, which still enveloped the
and morning--Day One." As with the Hebrew solar days, so
also with these epoch-days, the evening came first, gradually
accomplishing the divine purpose to its completion, when another
7,000-year day, apportioned to another work, would begin darkly,
and progress to perfection. This period, or "day,"
is scientifically described as Azoic, or lifeless.
Second Creative Epoch-Day
God said, Let there be an "expanse" [firmament, atmosphere]
in the midst [between] the waters; and let it divide waters
from waters. Thus God divided the waters under the atmosphere
from the waters above the atmosphere. And God called the firmament
[expanse, or atmosphere] heaven.
second epoch-day of 7,000 years was wholly devoted to the production
of an atmosphere. It was probably developed in a perfectly natural
way, as are most of God's wonderful works, though none the less
of his devising, ordering, creating. The fall of the "ring"
of water and minerals, which enabled light to penetrate through
to the earth during the first epoch-day, reaching the still
heated earth and its boiling and steaming surface waters, would
produce various gases which, rising, would constitute a cushion,
or firmament, or atmosphere, all around the earth, and tend
to hold up the remaining waters of the "rings" off
from the earth. This "day," so far as Scriptures show,
would also belong to the Azoic, or lifeless, period; but geology
objects to this, claiming that the rocks appropriate to this
time show worm-trails and immense quantities of tiny shellfish,
the remains of which are evidenced in the great beds of limestone.
They denominate this the Paleozoic age of first life--the Silurian
period. This is not at variance with the Biblical account, which
merely ignores these lowest forms of life.
and morning--Day Two--ended with the full accomplishment of
the divine intention respecting it; the separation of the clouds
and vapors, etc., from the surface waters by an atmosphere.
Third Creative Epoch-Day
God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together
in one place, and let dry land appear. And it was so. And God
called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the
waters called he Seas. And this being accomplished and approved
of God, he said, Let the earth bring forth tender grass, and
herb yielding seed, and the fruit-tree bearing fruit after its
kind, in which is its seed, upon the earth: and it was so.
fully corroborates this record. It points out to us that, as
the earth's crust cooled, the weight of the waters would tend
to make it kink and buckle--some parts being depressed became
the depths of the seas, other portions forced up constituted
mountain ranges--not suddenly, but gradually, one range following
another. We are not to suppose that all these changes took place
even in the seven thousand years of this third epoch-day; but,
rather, that it merely witnessed the beginning of the work necessary
as preparatory to the beginning of vegetation; for evidently
geology is correct in claiming that some great changes of this
nature are of comparatively recent date. Even within a century
we have had small examples of this power: and we shall not be
surprised if the next few years shall give us further paroxysms
of nature; for we are in another transition period--the opening
of the Millennial age, for which changed conditions are requisite.
the waters drained off into the seas, vegetation sprang forth--each
after its own class or kind, with seed in itself to reproduce
its own kind only. This matter is so fixed by the laws
of the Creator that although horticulture can and does do much
to give variety in perfection, yet it cannot change the kind.
The different families of vegetables will no more unite and
blend than will the various animal families. This shows design--not
a Creator only, but an intelligent one.
agrees that vegetation preceded the higher forms of animal life.
It agrees, too, that in this early period vegetation was extremely
rank--that mosses and ferns and vines grew immensely larger
and more rapidly then than now, because the atmosphere was extremely
full of carbonic and nitrogenous gases--so full of them that
breathing animals could not then have flourished. Plants, which
now grow only a few inches or a few feet high even at the equator,
then attained a growth of forty to eighty feet, and sometimes
two or three feet in diameter, as is demonstrated by fossil
remains. Under the conditions known to have then obtained, their
growth would not only be immense, but must also have been very
this period, geologists claim, our coal beds were formed: plants
and mosses, having a great affinity for carbonic acid gas, stored
up within themselves the carbon, forming coal, preparing thus
our present coal deposits while purifying the atmosphere for
the animal life of the later epoch-days. These vast peat-bogs
and moss-beds, in turn, were covered over by sand, clay, etc.,
washed over them by further upheavals and depressions of the
earth's surface, by tidal waves and by other descending "rings"
of the waters above the firmament. Practically the same procedure
must have been oft repeated, too; for we find coal-beds one
above another with various strata of clay, sand, limestone,
and morning, the third 7,000-year epoch-day, accomplished its
part in preparing the world, according to the divine design.
In geology it is styled the Carboniferous era, because of its
deposits of coal, oil, etc.
Fourth Creative Epoch-Day
God said, Let there be lights in the firmament [expanse, atmosphere]
of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them
be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and for years:
and let them be for lights in the expanse [atmosphere] to give
light upon the earth; and it was so. God made [or caused to
shine--a different verb not meaning created] two great lights;
<PAGE 34> the greater light for the rule
of the day [to indicate the time of day] and the lesser light,
the night; the stars also.
achievements of one epoch-day were carried over into the next,
and we are justified in supposing that the light of the first
day became more and more distinct during the next two, as ring
after ring came down from the waters above the firmament to
the waters below it, until by the fourth epoch-day the sun and
moon and stars could be seen; not so clearly as now on a bright
day, until after Noah's flood--the last of the "rings";
but clearly discernible, nevertheless, through the translucent
veil of waters --as now on a misty day or night. Sun, moon and
stars had long been shining on the outer veil of the earth,
but now the time came to let these lights in the firmament be
seen; to let the days--previously marked by a dull, grayish
light, such as we see some rainy mornings when the sun, moon
and stars are invisible for clouds--become more distinct, so
that the orb of day might by its course mark time for man and
beast when created, and meantime begin to oxygenize the air,
thus to prepare it for breathing animals. Later on in the same
7,000-year day, the moon and stars also appeared--to influence
the tides and to be ready to mark time in the night for man's
are not to suppose that the development of plant life ceased
during the fourth day, but rather that it progressed --the increased
influence of sun and moon serving to bring forward still other
varieties of grass and shrubs and trees. Geology shows advances,
too, at this period--insects, snails, crabs, etc. Fish-bones
and scales are found in coal seams, too; but this does not disturb
the order; for the formation of coal-beds evidently continued
after the third day--thus running into the Reptilian period.
This "day" corresponds most closely with what geology
designates the "Trias" period. Evening and
morning--Day Four of seven thousand years, or 28,000 years from
the starting of this work--closed, witnessing great progress
in the earth's preparation for man.
Fifth Creative Epoch-Day
God said, Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures,
and let fowl fly above the earth in the open atmosphere of heaven.
And God created great whales and every living creature that
moveth, with which the waters swarm, after their KIND, and every
winged fowl after its KIND. And it was as God designed.
the warm oceans of the earth swarmed with living creatures,
from the jellyfish to the whale, may be judged by the profusion
of life in the warm southern seas at the present time. Reptiles,
living partly in the water and partly on the land (amphibious)
belong also to this period, during which present continents
and islands were gradually rising and again subsiding, at one
time deluged by larger or smaller rings coming down, and at
another washed by tidal waves. No wonder the remains of shellfish,
etc., are found in the highest mountains. And no wonder the
immense beds of limestone in all parts of the world are sometimes
called "shellfish cemeteries," because composed almost
exclusively of conglomerate shells. What a swarming there must
have been when those untellable trillions of little creatures
were born, and, dying dropped one by one their little shells!
We read that--God blessed them in multiplying. Yes, even so
lowly an existence and for so brief a time is a favor, a blessing.
us not contend for more than the Scripture record demands. The
Bible does not assert that God created separately and individually
the myriad kinds of fish and reptiles; but merely that divine
influence, or spirit, brooded, and by divine purpose the sea
brought forth its creatures of various kinds. The processes
are not declared--one species may, under different conditions,
have developed into another; or from the same original protoplasm
different orders of creatures may have developed under differing
conditions. No man knoweth, and it is unwise to be dogmatic.
It is not for us to dispute that even the protoplasm of the
paleozoic slime may not have come into existence through chemical
action of the highly mineralized waters
<PAGE 36> of those seas. What we do claim
is, that all came about as results of divine intention and arrangement,
and, hence, were divine creations, whatever were the channels
and agencies. And we claim that this is shown by the facts of
nature no less than by the words of Genesis; that however the
creatures of the sea were produced, they were brought to the
condition in which each is, of its own kind--where the lines
of species cannot be overridden. This is God's work, by whatever
means brought about.
day, or epoch, corresponds very well to the Reptilian age of
the scientist. Evening and morning--Day Five-- 35,000 years
from the commencement of the work of ordering the earth as man's
home and kingdom.
Sixth Creative Epoch-Day
God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after
his kind --cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth
after its kind. And it was so; God made the beast of the earth
after its kind and cattle after their kind and earth-reptiles
after their kind. And God saw it was so done and approved.
this time matters on this earth were becoming more settled;
the crust was thicker by hundreds of feet of sand and clays
and shells and coal, and various other minerals gathered, some
from crumbling rocks thrown up by earthquakes, some from the
"rings" once surrounding the earth, and some from
animal and vegetable deposits; besides, the earth itself must
have cooled considerably during those 35,000 years. A sufficiency
of earth's surface was now above the sea, and well drained by
mountain ranges and valleys to be ready for the lower animals,
which are here divided into three kinds: (1) earth-reptiles,
cold-blooded, breathing creatures--lizards, snakes, etc.; (2)
beasts of the earth, or wild beasts, as differentiated from
domestic animals, specially suited to be companions for man,
and here referred to as (3) cattle. The air also by this time
would be purified of elements unsuited to breathing animals,
absorbed from it by the rank vegetation of the carboniferous
period, as the excessive hydro-carbons had been absorbed from
<PAGE 37> oceans by the minute shellfish,
preparatory to the swarming of sea creatures which breathe.
again, we need not quarrel needlessly with Evolutionists. We
will concede that, if God chose, he could have brought all the
different species of animal life into being by a development
of one from the other, or he could have developed each species
separately from the original protozoan slime. We know not what
method he adopted, for it is revealed neither in the Bible nor
in the rocks. It is, however, clearly revealed that in whatever
way God chose to accomplish it, he has fixed animal species,
each "after his kind" in such a manner that they do
not change; in such a manner that the ingenuity of the human
mind has not succeeded in assisting them to change. Here is
the stamp of the intelligent Creator upon his handiwork; for
had "Nature" or "blind force" been the creator,
we would still see it plodding blindly on, at times evoluting
and at times retrograding; we would see no such fixity of species
as we behold all about us in nature.
may reasonably assume that it was just at the close of the sixth
epoch-day that God created man; because his creation was the
last, and it is distinctly stated that God finished his
creative work, not on the sixth, but "on the seventh day"--the
division of the man into two persons, two sexes, being, evidently,
the final act.
God said, We will make man in our image, and after our likeness;
let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the
fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth,
and over every reptile that creeps upon the earth. So God created
man in his image, in the image of God created he him; male and
female created he them, and God blessed them and said unto them,
Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue and control
it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the fowl
of the heavens and over every living thing that moveth upon
view of our remarks, foregoing, that the Scripture language
does not forbid the possibility of the plants, water-creatures
and land-creatures being more or less developed, or evolved,
in their various kinds, it may be well for us to
<PAGE 38> note the wide difference in the
language used when referring to man's creation. The latter is
a specific declaration of the direct exercise of divine creative
power, while the others are not, but rather imply a development:
the earth brought forth grass," etc.
the waters bring forth the creeping creature," etc.
the earth bring forth living creature after his kind,
are two accounts of the creation--the one we have just been
considering, which treats the matter briefly and in its epochal
order, and another which follows it in
`Genesis 2:4-25`. In other words, the division of the
chapters was at a wrong place--the two accounts should each
constitute a chapter. The second one is a commentary on the
first, explanatory of details. "These are the generations,"
or developments, of the heavens and the earth and their creatures,
from a time before there was any plant or herb. The first and
principal account gives the word "God" when speaking
of the Creator; and the second, or commentary account, points
out that it was Jehovah God who did the entire work--"in
the day" that he made the heavens and the earth--thus grasping
the whole as one still larger epoch-day, including the work
of the six already enumerated.
word God in the first chapter is from the common Hebrew word
Elohim, a plural word which might be translated Gods,
and which, as we have already seen, signifies "mighty
The "Only Begotten" of the Father was surely his active
agent in this creative work, and he may have had associated
with him in the execution of its details a host of angels to
whom also the word elohim would be applicable here as
elsewhere in the Scriptures.2
It is appropriate, therefore, that the second, or commentary,
account should call our attention to the fact that Jehovah the
<PAGE 39> of all was the Creator, whoever
may have been used as his honored representatives and instruments.
The added particulars of the second account respecting man's
creation may properly be considered here. It declares:
God formed man of dust of the ground, and breathed into his
nostrils the breath of lives, and the man became a living being.
was glorified in all his previous works and in every creature,
however insignificant, even though none of them could properly
render him thanks or appreciate him or even know him. The divine
purpose had foreseen all this from the beginning, and was preparing
for man, who was intended to be the masterpiece of the earthly,
or animal, creation. It is not said of man as of the sea creatures,
"Let the seas swarm," nor as with the lower earthly
animals, "Let the earth bring forth"; but it is recorded,
on the contrary, that he was a special creation by his Maker,
"made in his own image." It matters not whether the
image of the Elohim be understood or the image of Jehovah,
for were not the Elohim "sons of God," and
in his likeness in respect to reasoning power and moral intelligence?
are not to understand this "image" to be one of physical
shape; but, rather, a moral and intellectual image of the great
Spirit, fashioned appropriately to his earthly conditions and
nature. And as for the "likeness," it doubtless relates
to man's dominion--he was to be king of earth and its teeming
creatures, like as God is the King of the entire universe. Here
is the battlefield between God's Word and so-called Modern Science,
to which the whole world, especially the learned--including
the leaders of thought in all theological seminaries, and the
ministers in all the prominent pulpits, are bowing down--worshiping
the scientific God called "Evolution." The two theories
are squarely at issue: if the Evolution theory be true, the
Bible is false from Genesis to Revelation. If the Bible be true,
as we hold, the Evolution theory is utterly false in all its
deductions as respects man.
is not alone the Genesis account of man's creation in the divine
image that must determine the matter, strong as are the declarations
of the Word: the entire theory of the Bible supports the Genesis
record, and stands or falls with it. For, if man was created
otherwise than pure and perfect and mentally well endowed, he
could not, truthfully, have been called an "image of"
God; nor could his Creator have placed him on trial in
Eden to test his fitness for everlasting life; nor could his
disobedience in the eating of the forbidden fruit have been
accounted sin and punishable, as it was, by a death sentence;
nor would it have been necessary to have redeemed him from that
"the man Christ Jesus" is declared to have been the
"anti-lutron," the ransom-price (or corresponding
price) for this first man's guilt, and he must, therefore, be
considered a sample, or illustration, of what the first man
was, before he sinned and passed under the divine condemnation
know, too, that there are today, as there have been in the past,
many noble natural men, all of whom God declares are sinners,
and, as such, unrecognizable by Jehovah, except as they penitently
approach him in the merit of Christ's sacrifice and obtain his
forgiveness. The standing of all who thus come unto God is declared
to be only of his grace, under the robe of Christ's righteousness.
And the outcome, we are informed, must be a resurrection,
or restitution, to perfection ere any can be personally
and entirely satisfactory to the Creator. And yet it was this
same Creator who communed with Adam before his transgression
and called him his son, and who declares that Adam and we, his
children, became "children of wrath" and passed under
condemnation because of sin, which Adam did not have when created
a "son of God." `Luke 3:38`
surely as "all the holy prophets since the world began"
have declared the coming Millennium to be "times of restitution
of all things spoken," so surely the Evolution theory is
in violent antagonism to the utterances of God through all
<PAGE 41> the holy prophets. For restitution,
so far from being a blessing to the race, would be a crime against
it if the Evolution theory be correct. If by blind force or
other evolutionary processes, man has been climbing up by tedious
endeavors and laborious efforts, from protoplasm to oyster,
and from oyster to fish, and from fish to reptile, and from
reptile to monkey, and from monkey to lowest man, and from lowest
man to what we are--then it would be a fearful injury to the
race for God to restore it to what Adam was, or possibly
to force the restitution further--back to protoplasm. There
is no middle ground on this question; and the sooner God's people
decide positively in accord with his Word the better it will
be for them, and the more sure they will be of not falling into
some of the no-ransom and evolutionary theories now afloat and
seeking to deceive, if it were possible, the very elect. Let
God be true, though it prove every Evolutionist a liar.
cannot here go into the details of Adam's creation, to discuss
his organism, or body, his spirit, or breath of life, and how
these united constituted him a living being, or soul. This has
already been presented in a different connection.3
fruitfulness in posterity was evidently in no manner connected
with the transgression, as some have assumed, but was a part
of the divine blessing. The only relationship of the fall and
its curse, or penalty, in this respect was, as stated, an increase
of the mother's conceptions and sorrows, corresponding to the
man's labor and sweat of face. These have borne the more heavily
in proportion as the race has become degenerate and weak, mentally
and physically. The object of the fruitfulness will have been
attained when a sufficient progeny has been born to ultimately
fill (not replenish) the earth. True, an immense number
have already been born--possibly fifty thousand millions--and
are now asleep in the great prison-house of death; but these
are none too many; for the present land
<PAGE 42> surface of earth if all made fit
for man, as it ultimately will be, would hold two or three times
this number--without taking into consideration the possibility
of other continents being raised from the depths of the seas
as the present ones were in the past.
of a skeptical turn of mind have for a long time been seeking
to prove that man was on the earth long before the period assigned
in Genesis, and every bone found in the lower clays or gravels
is scrutinized with a view to making the scientist a world-wide
reputation as the man who has given the lie to the Word of God.
We have already referred to the unreliability of such evidences,4
as the finding of arrow-heads amongst the gravel of an early
period. In some cases at least these have been proven to have
been the work of modern Indians, who had shaped them near the
spot where they found the suitable flint-stones.5
a meeting of the Victoria Philosophical Institute not
very long ago it was stated that "a careful analysis had
been undertaken by Professor Stokes, F.R.S., Sir J. R. Bennett,
Vice-Pres. R.S., Professor Beale, F.R.S., and others, of the
various theories of Evolution, and it was reported that, as
yet, no scientific evidence had been met with giving
countenance to the theory that man had been evolved from a lower
order of animals; and Professor Virchow had declared that there
was a complete absence of any fossil type of a lower stage in
the development of man; and that any positive advance in the
province of prehistoric anthropology has actually removed us
further from proofs of such connection--namely, with the rest
of the animal kingdom. In this, Professor Barraude, the great
paleontologist, had concurred, declaring that in none of his
investigations had he found any one fossil species develop into
another. In fact, it would seem that no scientific man had yet
discovered a link between man and the ape, between fish and
frog, or between the vertebrate and the invertebrate animals;
further, there was no evidence of any one species, fossil or
other, losing its peculiar characteristics to acquire new ones
belonging to other species; for instance, however similar the
dog to the wolf, there was no connecting link, and among extinct
species the same was the case; there was no gradual passage
from one to another. Moreover, the first animals that existed
on the earth were by no means to be considered as inferior or
quote briefly from Sir J. W. Dawson, LL.D., F.R.S., from his
summary of his recent findings respecting "The Meeting
Place of Geology and History." He says:
have found no link of derivation connecting man with the lower
animals which preceded him. He appears before us as a new departure
in creation, without any direct relation to the instinctive
life of the lower animals. The earliest men are no less men
than their descendants, and up to the extent of their means,
inventors, innovators, and introducers of new modes of life,
just as much as they. We have not even been able as yet to trace
man back to the harmless
<PAGE 44> golden age [of Paradise]. As we
find him in the caves and gravels he is already a fallen man,
out of harmony with his environment and the foe of his fellow
creatures, contriving against them instruments of destruction
more fatal than those furnished by nature to the carnivorous
wild beasts....Man, as to his body, is confessedly an animal,
of the earth earthy. He is also a member of the province vertebrata,
and the class mammalia; but in that class he constitutes
not only a direct species and genus, but even a distinct family,
or order. In other words, he is the sole species of his genus,
and of his family, or order. He is thus separated by a great
gap from all the animals nearest to him; and even if we admit
the doctrine, as yet unproved, of the derivation of one species
from another in the case of lower animals, we are unable to
supply the 'missing links' which would be required to connect
man with any group of inferior animals....No fact of science
is more certainly established than the recency of man in geological
time. Not only do we find no trace of his remains in the older
geological formations, but we find no remains of the animals
nearest to him; and the conditions of the world in those periods
seem to unfit it for the residence of man. If, following the
usual geological system, we divide the whole history of the
earth into four great periods, extending from the oldest rocks
known to us, the eozoic, or archaean, up to the modern, we find
remains of man, or of his works, only in the latest of the four,
and in the latter part of this. In point of fact, there is no
indisputable proof of the presence of man until we reach the
early modern period. ...There is but one species of man, though
many races and varieties; and these races, or varieties, seem
to have developed themselves at a very early time, and have
shown a remarkable fixity in their later discovery. ...The history
in Genesis has anticipated modern history. This ancient book
is in every way trustworthy, and as remote as possible from
the myths and legends of ancient heathenism."
Pasteur, the great bacteriologist, was an outspoken opponent
of Darwinism; and expressed himself as follows:
will one day laugh at the foolishness of the modern materialistic
philosophers. The more I study nature, the more I stand amazed
at the works of the Creator. I pray while I am engaged in my
work in the laboratory."
the Russian savant, though not a professed Christian, was similarly
opposed to the Darwinian theory of the development of organic
beings from inorganic, and
<PAGE 45> declared: "Any attempt to
find the transition from animal to man has ended in a total
failure. The middle link has not been found and will not be
found. Man is not descended from the ape. It has been proved
beyond a doubt that during the past five thousand years there
has been no noticeable change in mankind."
naturalists have also raised their voices against the Darwinian
view of these facts how foolish appear the occasional essays
of "Doctors" or "Professors" who feign learning
by discussing "missing links" or suggesting that the
little toes of human feet are becoming useless and will soon
be "dropped by nature" as "monkey tails have
already been dropped." Have we not mummies well preserved
nearly four thousand years old? Have we not life-sized, nude
statuary nearly as old? Are tails shown on any of these? Are
their little toes anywise different from ours of today? Is not
the whole tendency of all nature downward? With plants and the
lower animals is not man's wisdom and aid necessary to the maintenance
of highest types? And with men is not the grace of God necessary
to his uplift, and to hinder gross degeneracy such as we see
in "Darkest Africa"? And is not this in accord with
Scripture? `Rom. 1:21,24,28`
is appropriate that the Lord's people keep well in mind the
caution bestowed on Timothy by the Apostle Paul: "O Timothy,...avoid
profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely
so-called." (`1 Tim. 6:20`)
To see any truth clearly we must look from the standpoint of
the divine revelation. We must "See light in His light."
Then looking abroad through nature under the guidance of nature's
God, the effect will be to expand both heart and intellect,
and to fill us with admiration and adoration as we catch panoramic
glimpses of the glory, majesty and power of our Almighty Creator.
and morning, Day Six, at its close, 42,000 years after "work"
began, found the earth ready for man to subdue
<PAGE 46> it--yet still, as a whole, unfit
for him. Knowing in advance of his creature's disobedience (and
of his entire plan connected with his sentence of death, his
redemption and the ultimate recovery from sin and death of all
rightly exercised by their experiences), God did not wait the
creation of man until the earth would all be ready for him,
but merely prepared a Paradise, a garden in Eden--perfecting
it in every way for the brief trial of the perfect pair--leaving
to mankind, as convict laborers, the work of "subduing"
the earth and at the same time gaining thereby valuable lessons
Seventh Epoch-Day of the Creative Week
on the Seventh day God ended the work which he had made; and
he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had
the upward, progressional sequence of the six days, and keeping
in memory the fact that the number seven of itself implies completion
and perfection, we naturally would expect the Seventh Epoch-Day
to be more marvelous than its predecessors. And so we find it:
only that its important part is for a time--until the "due
time"--shut to our mental eyes of understanding by the
general statement that God rested on the seventh day from all
his work. How strange that he should rest the creative work
at a point where it seemed just ready for completion, as though
a workman should prepare all the materials for a structure and
then desist from further activities without accomplishing his
the whole matter opens grandly before us when we perceive that
Jehovah God rested his work of creation, ceased to prosecute
it, because in his wisdom he foresaw that his designs could
best be executed by another means. God saw best to permit his
creature Adam to exercise his free will and fall under temptation
into sin and its legitimate penalty, death--including a long
period, 6,000 years of dying and battling, as a convict, with
<PAGE 47> God saw best to permit him thus
as a convict to do a part of the subduing of the earth; that
to bring it as a whole toward its foretold Paradisaic condition
would be profitable to man under the circumstances; that it
would be expedient that man realize the principles underlying
divine righteousness and the exceeding sinfulness of sin, and
be thus prepared for the grace to be brought to the world in
one of the chief reasons for Jehovah's cessation of the creative
work undoubtedly was that it might be accomplished by another--by
his Only Begotten--in a manner that would not only glorify the
Son, but glorify the Father also, by displaying the perfections
of the Divine attributes as no other course could do. This was
by the giving of his Son to be man's redeemer--an exhibition
not only of Divine Justice, which could by no means violate
the decree that "the wages of sin is death," but which
simultaneously illustrated Divine Love--compassion for his fallen
creatures to the extent of the death of his Son on man's behalf.
Divine Wisdom and Power will also ultimately be exhibited in
every feature of the arrangement when completed.
may be suggested that for the Father to desist from the perfecting
of the creative plan in order that the Son might do this work
during the Millennium, by processes of restitution, would be
no different from the previous creative operations, all of which
were of the Father and by the Son-- without whom
was not anything made that was made. But we answer, No. The
relationship of the Son to the work of restitution with which
this Seventh Epoch-Day will close and bring terrestrial perfection,
will be wholly different from any of his previous works. In
all the previous creations the Son simply acted for Jehovah,
using powers and energies not in any sense his own; but in this
grand work to come he will be using a power and authority that
are his own--which cost him 34 years of humiliation, culminating
in his crucifixion. By that transaction, which the Father's
wisdom and love planned for him, he "bought" the world,
<PAGE 48> bought Father Adam and all his
progeny, and his estate-- the earth--with all his title to it
as its monarch "in the likeness of God." The Father
delighted to honor the "First Begotten," and therefore
planned it thus, and rested, or ceased from creative processes,
that the Son might thus honor him and be honored by him.
rested, not in the sense of recuperating from weariness, but
in the sense of ceasing to create. He beheld the ruin and fall
of his noblest earthly creation through sin, yet put forth no
power to stay the course of the death sentence and started no
restitutional procedures. Indeed, by the law which he imposed,
he precluded any opportunity for his exercise of mercy and clemency
toward Adam and his race, except through a ransomer. The penalty
being death, and that without limit--everlasting death, "everlasting
destruction" --and it being impossible for God to lie,
impossible for the Supreme Judge of the universe to reverse
his own righteous decree, it was thus rendered impossible for
the Creator to become directly the restorer of the race, or
in any sense or degree to continue his creative work in the
condemned man or in his estate, the earth.
did Jehovah God manifest his confidence in his own great plan
of the ages, and in his Only Begotten Son to whom he has committed
its full execution. This confidence of the Father in the Son
is used by the Apostle as an illustration of how our faith should
so grasp the Anointed One that we also can trust every interest
and concern to him, as respects ourselves and our dear friends
and the world of mankind in general: the Apostle's declaration
is--"We who have believed do enter into rest....He that
is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works,
as God did from his." Believers, like God, have perfect
confidence in Christ's ability and willingness to carry out
all of Jehovah's great projects in respect to our race, and
therefore rest, not from physical weariness, but from
concern, from anxiety, from any desire to take the matter out
of Christ's charge, or to attempt to secure the result by any
our Creator's resting, or desisting from coming promptly to
the relief of his fallen creatures, has in any degree the appearance
of indifference or neglect, it was not really so, but merely
the outworking of the wisest and best means for man's assistance--through
a Mediator. If it is suggested that the restitution work should
have commenced sooner, we reply that the period of the reign
of Sin and Death, 6,000 years, has been none too long for the
bringing forth by births of a race sufficient in number to "fill
the earth"; none too long to give all a lesson in the "exceeding
sinfulness of sin" and the severe wages it pays; none too
long to let men try their own devices for their own uplift and
note their futility. The coming of our Lord at his first advent
to redeem (purchase) the world so that he would have
a just, equitable right to come again to bless, uplift and restore
all who will accept his grace, although it was more than 4,000
years after the blight of sin and death entered, is, nevertheless,
declared in Scripture to have been in God's due time: "In
due time God sent forth his Son." Indeed, we see that it
would not even then have been due time, except for the divine
purpose to call and gather and polish and make ready the elect
Church to share with the Redeemer in the great Millennial work
of blessing the world--God foreseeing that it would require
this entire Gospel age for this election, sent his Son for the
redemptive work just long enough in advance to accomplish it.
The Period of Divine Cessation, or Rest,
from Creative and Energizing Activity in
Connection with the Earth
long is it since Jehovah ceased, or rested in, his creative
work? We reply that it is now a little more than six thousand
years. How long will his rest, or cessation, continue? We answer
that it will continue throughout the Millennium--the thousand
years of the reign of the great Mediator, effecting "the
restitution of all things which God hath spoken by the mouth
of all his holy prophets since the
<PAGE 50> world began." (`Acts
3:21`) Will the confidence of Jehovah in the outworking
of his plan, which led him thus to rest it all in the care of
Jesus prove to have been fully justified? will the conclusion
be satisfactory? Jehovah God, who knows the end from the beginning,
assures us that it will, and that the Son, at whose cost the
plan is being executed, "shall see of the travail of his
soul and be satisfied." (`Isa. 53:11`)
Yea, all believers who are resting by faith in their Redeemer's
work--past and to come--may have full assurance of faith that
"eye hath not seen nor ear heard, neither hath it entered
into the heart of man to conceive the things which God hath
in reservation for those who love him," specially for the
Church; but also the lengths and breadths and heights and depths
of love and mercy and restitutional blessings, for all those
of the non-elect world, who in their Millennial day of grace
shall heartily accept the wonderful divine provisions on the
thousand years past and one thousand years future, seven thousand
years of Jehovah's "rest," will carry us to the time
when the Son's Millennial reign shall cease because of having
accomplished its design--the restitution of the willing and
obedient of mankind to the divine image, and the subjugation
of the earth under man, as his estate, his kingdom. Then the
Mediatorial throne and reign having served their purpose, and
all corrupters of the earth having been destroyed, "the
Son shall deliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father"--by
delivering it to mankind for whom it was originally designed,
as it is written.6
(`1 Cor. 15:24-28`) "Then
shall the King say unto them,...Come, ye blessed [approved]
of my Father, inherit the Kingdom prepared for you from the
foundation of the world"--mundane creation.
is the length of this Seventh Epoch-Day, so distinctly
marked by history and prophecy, that furnishes us the clue to
the length of all the other epoch-days of the creative
<PAGE 51> Week. And the whole period of
seven times seven thousand years, or forty-nine thousand years,
when complete, will lead up to and introduce the great Fiftieth,
which we have already noted7
as prominent in the Scriptures, as marking grand climaxes in
the divine plan; Israel's day Sabbaths culminating in 7 x 7
equals 49, leading to and introducing the fiftieth, or Pentecost,
with its rest of faith; their year Sabbaths 7 x 7 equals 49,
introducing the fiftieth, or Jubilee, year; the still larger
cycle of 50 x 50, marking the Millennium as Earth's great Jubilee.
And now, finally, we find the Sabbath, or seven-day system,
on a still larger scale measuring earth's creation, from its
inception to its perfection, to be 7 times 7,000 years equals
49,000 years, ushering in the grand epoch when there shall be
no more sighing, no more crying, no more pain and no more dying,
because God's work of creation shall then have been completed
so far as this earth is concerned. No wonder that that date
should be marked as a Jubilee date!
angelic sons of God "shouted for joy" (`Job
38:7`) in the dawn of earth's creative week, and after
witnessing step after step in the development, finally saw man,
its king, made in the divine image. Then came the fall by disobedience
into sin and death, and the frightful experiences of fallen
angels who kept not their primary estate, and man's selfish
and bloody history under the reign of Sin and Death. Then successively
follow the redemption, the selection of the Anointed One (head
and body) through sacrifice, and the establishment of the Messianic
Kingdom with its wonderful restitution of all things spoken
by God through the mouth of all his holy prophets since the
world began. No wonder indeed that there should be a Jubilation
in heaven and in earth when all of Jehovah's intelligent creatures
shall thus behold the lengths, heights and breadths and depths,
not only of God's Love, but also of his Justice and Wisdom and
the New Song can then be sung by all of God's creatures, both
in heaven and in earth, saying:
and marvelous are thy works, Lord God, Almighty!
Just and true are thy ways, thou King of the ages!
Who shall not reverence thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name?
For thou only art bountiful. For all peoples shall come and worship
Because thy righteous doings are made manifest."
saith the Lord that created the heavens: God himself that formed
the earth and made it; he hath established it. He created it
not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited."
every creature which is in heaven and on earth...and such as
are in the sea...heard I saying, Blessing and honor and glory
and power be unto him that sitteth upon the throne and unto
the Lamb, forever and forever." `Rev. 5:13`
writing the foregoing we find the following on the subject from
the pen of Prof. G. Frederick Wright, D.D., LL.D., under date
Nov. 19th, 1902, on the Genesis account of creation.
first chapter of Genesis, which treats of the creation of the
world, is a most remarkable document. It is remarkable as much
for the skill with which it avoids possible conflict with scientific
discovery as for its effectiveness from a literary point of
view. Measured by the influence it has had, there is scarcely
any other piece of literature that can be compared with it.
Its evident object is to discredit polytheism and to emphasize
the unity of the Godhead. This it does by denying a plurality
of gods, both in general and in detail, and by affirming that
it is the one eternal God of Israel who has made the heavens
and the earth and all the objects in it which idolators are
in the habit of worshiping.
sublimity of this chapter is seen in the fact that everywhere
apart from the influence of it polytheism and idolatry prevail.
The unity of God and his worship as the sole Creator of all
things are maintained only by those nations which have accepted
this chapter as a true and divine revelation.
the same time the advancement of science has served rather to
enhance than to detract from our admiration of this remarkable
portion of the grand book of divine revelation. Within its ample
<PAGE 53> there is opportunity for every
real discovery of science to find shelter. With such remarkable
wisdom has the language of this chapter been chosen to avoid
conflict with modern science that so great a geologist as Prof.
J. D. Dana of Yale College asserted with great emphasis that
it was impossible to account for it except on the theory of
the opening verse it shuts off controversy concerning the age
of the earth, and indeed of the solar system, by the simple
statement that the heaven and the earth were created in the
'beginning,' without any assertion how long ago that beginning
was. But that the solar system had a beginning is proved by
modern science with such clearness that the boldest evolutionist
cannot gainsay it. The modern doctrine of the conservation of
energy proves that the present order of things has not always
existed. The sun is cooling off. Its heat is rapidly radiating
and wasting itself in empty space. In short, the solar system
is running down, and it is as clear as noonday that the process
cannot have been going on forever. Even the nebular hypothesis
implies a beginning, and no wit of man ever devised a better
statement of that fact than is found in the opening verse of
whole first chapter of Genesis is based upon the principle of
progress in this method of creation. The universe was not brought
into existence instantaneously. It was not complete at the outset.
In the beginning we have merely the physical forces out of which
the grand structure is to be made by a gradually unfolding,
or if one prefers to say so, an 'evolutionary' process.* This
is equally true whatever view one may take of the word 'day'
(Hebrew 'yom'). Why should an Almighty Creator need six days,
even if only twenty-four hours long, to create the world in?
The answer is that the Creator not only possesses almighty power,
but has infinite wisdom, and has seen fit to choose a method
of creation which involves 'first the blade, then the ear, then
the full corn in the ear.'
there is a divine plan of evolution,8
appears on the face of this whole chapter. The creation is begun
by bringing into existence the simplest forms of matter, and
continued by imposing upon them those activities of force and
energy which produce light. This is followed by the segregation
of the matter which forms the earth, and the separation of land
from water, and of the water upon the earth from that which
is held in suspension in the air. If anyone wishes to
<PAGE 54> carp over the word 'firmament,'
and insists upon its bald literal meaning, he is forbidden to
do so by the subsequent statement (`Gen.
1:20`) that the birds are made to fly above the earth
in the open firmament of heaven. The medium which held up the
water in the clouds was one through which the birds could fly.
the third stage the land was covered with vegetation, which
is the simplest form of life, but which, when once introduced,
carries with it the whole developing series of vegetable products.
So comprehensive is the language in which the creation of plants
is announced that it leaves ample room for the theory of spontaneous
generation, which is yet one of the mooted questions in biology.
In the light of this how remarkable are the words 'and God said,
Let the earth bring forth grass;...and the earth brought forth
same remarkable form of expression occurs in introducing the
fifth day of progress, where we read (`Gen.
1:20`): 'And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly
the moving creature that hath life.'...And again, introducing
the sixth day's work the same phrase is used (`Gen.
1:24`) 'Let the earth bring forth the living creature
after his kind.'...If one should insist on interpreting this
language according to the mere letter he would have what neither
science nor theology would accept.
it comes to the creation of man a very different expression
is used. It is said that God made man in his own image and breathed
into him the breath of life. How much this may signify with
reference to the mode of man's creation it is not necessary
to consider at this point. But the expression fitly corresponds
to the exalted dignity which belongs to man when compared to
the rest of the animal creation. The most noteworthy characteristics
of man are brought to light both in this and in the subsequent
account of the beginning of his career. Not only is man said
to be made in the image of God, but he is fitted to rule over
the beasts of the field and has the gift of language, through
which he can bestow names upon them. Furthermore, he is a being
free of will, who knows the difference between right and wrong--in
short, is in possession of a moral nature which places him in
a class by himself.
so many things should have been told us about the creation,
with nothing which is absurd and fantastic, and so little which
creates any difficulty in harmonizing it with modern science,
is the clearest evidence which we can have that it was given
by divine inspiration. Not even Milton, with all his learning
and with the advantage
<PAGE 55> of this account before him, could
curb his imagination sufficiently to keep from making a travesty
of his whole conception of the creation of the animal kingdom.
What but the hand of inspiration could have so curbed and guided
the writer of the first chapter of Genesis?
Created, Not Evoluted
is a vast difference between the size and development in the
brain in man and that in the lower members of the order 'primates.'
and psychologically man differs even more widely from the lower
members of his order. He has the power of grammatical speech.
He can arrange his thoughts in sentences, which can be represented
by arbitrary marks on paper or some other substance. Man has
an ear for harmony in music, which no animal has. This involves
a delicacy of structure in the organs of hearing of a most marvelous
character. Among his mental qualities, that of scientific or
inductive reasoning is most remarkable when contrasted with
the mental capacities of the animal creation.
his great work on 'Mental Evolution,' Romanes thinks he finds
in the lower animals all the rudiments of man's mental capacity,
but they are so clearly rudimental that they leave the gap between
man and the animal nearly as great as ever. By collecting all
the manifestations of intelligence in animals he finds that
they all together manifest as much intelligence as a child does
when it is 15 months old. But this intelligence is not in any
single species, one species being advanced to that degree in
one line, and another, in another....
as the dog's sense of smell may be, it is of no help in teaching
him geology. Nor is the eagle's acuteness of vision of any assistance
to him in studying astronomy. In vain would one conduct a dog
over the world to learn the extent of the ice cap during the
glacial period, for he has no powers of thought through which
he could connect the boulders in the United States with their
parent ledges in Canada, or the scratched stones on the plains
of Russia with the Scandinavian mountains from whose ledges
they were wrenched by the moving ice. Such inferences are entirely
beyond canine capacity....
nothing does this superiority of the human mind appear more
striking than in its capacity to gain religious ideas through
literature. There are, indeed, wonderful exhibitions of learned
pigs, which, by some process, can be taught to select a few
letters on blocks so as to
<PAGE 56> spell out some simple words. But
no animal can be taught to talk intelligibly. To this statement
the parrot even is not an exception, since its words are merely
a repetition of sounds unintelligible even to himself. Much
less can an animal be taught to read or to listen intelligently
to an oration or a sermon.
the other hand, the Bible, which is a book of the most varied
literature, containing the highest flights of poetry and eloquence
ever written, and presenting the sublimest conceptions of God
and the future life that have ever been entertained, has been
translated into almost every language under heaven, and has
found in those languages the appropriate figures of speech through
which effectively to present its ideas....
is thus, when viewed from the highest intellectual point of
view, that man's uniqueness in the animal creation is best seen.
Intellectually, he stands by himself. The scientific name for
the genus to which man belongs is 'homo,' but the species is
'homo sapiens,' that is, a human frame with human wisdom attached....
Russell Wallace, who independently discovered the principle
of natural selection and published it at the same time with
Darwin, instanced various physical peculiarities in man which
could not have originated by natural selection alone, but which
irresistibly pointed to the agency of a superior directing power.
these he cites the absence in man of any natural protective
covering. Man alone of all animals wears clothes. He weaves
the fibers of plants into a blanket or deprives other animals
of their skins, and uses them to throw over his own naked back
as a shelter from the inclemency of the weather. The birds have
feathers, sheep have a fleece, other animals have fur admirably
adapted for their protection. Man alone is without such protection,
except as he obtains it by the use of his own intelligence.
Until we pause to think of it, we scarcely realize how much
intelligence is involved in man's efforts to secure clothing.
Even in so simple a matter as that of securing the skin of another
animal for a robe, he is compelled as a preliminary to be the
inventor of tools. No animal was ever yet skinned without the
use of some sort of a knife.
brings us to another good definition of man, as a tool-using
animal. The nearest approach to the use of tools by animals
is found in the elephant and the monkey. An elephant has been
known to seize a brush with his trunk and by thus lengthening
it enabling himself to brush objects off from otherwise inaccessible
portions of his body. A monkey has been known to use a stick
in prying open a door. But no animal has ever been known to
fashion a tool; whereas there is
<PAGE 57> no tribe of men so low in intelligence
that it does not fashion most curious and complicated tools.
canoes of the lowest races are most ingeniously formed, and
most perfectly adapted to their needs. The chipped flint implement
involves the cherishing of a farsighted design and the exercise
of great skill in carving it out. The ingenious methods by which
savage nations secure fire at will, by friction, would do credit
to civilized man; while the use of the bow and sling and of
the boomerang shows inventive capacity of a very high order
with which the animal creation has nothing to compare.
furthermore adduces the human voice as a development far in
excess of anything that can be produced by natural selection.
Monkeys have no music in their souls and no capacity for music
in their vocal organs; whereas even the lowest races of man
have both. The 'folk songs' are the great source to which our
leading musical composers go for their themes. The late Theodore
F. Seward, in commenting upon the Negro plantation songs which
he transcribed, says that in their harmony and progression they
all conform to the scientific rules of musical composition.
However much of advantage this musical capacity may be to fully
developed man, we cannot conceive of its having been any advantage
to an animal in the low stage of development in which we find
the ape. The musical voice that attracts the ape has only the
faintest resemblance to that which is attractive to either man
the size of the human brain is out of all proportion to the
mental needs of the highest animal creation below man, and without
man's intelligence would be an incumbrance rather than a help.
The two, therefore, must have sprung into existence simultaneously
in order to have presented an advantage which natural selection
could seize hold of and preserve and develop....
is difficult to see how it could have been an advantage to an
ape to have the thumb of his hind limb turn into a big toe which
can no longer be used for grasping things, but is useful only
as he walks in an upright position. It is difficult to see what
advantage could come to an ape in having his forelimbs shortened,
as they would have to be if they were transformed into the arms
of a man. It is difficult also to see how it should have been
of any advantage to an ape to experience those changes in the
adjustment of the hip bone and of the neck which would prevent
his walking at all on all fours, and limit him to walking on
two legs and in an upright position.
all these respects the difficulty in our understanding the origin
of man from natural selection is increased if we are compelled
<PAGE 58> that it was a very gradual process,
and that these changes leading on to the perfection of the human
organization began in an imperceptible, or almost imperceptible,
degree; for such incipient changes could have been of no advantage.
To be of advantage they must have been considerable, and the
mental and physical changes must have been correlated in accordance
with some law of pre-established harmony.
mystery of the origin of man has not been in the least degree
diminished by the Darwinian hypothesis, or by any light which
evolutionary theories have thrown upon it. It is acknowledged
by all that geologically, he is the most recent of the species
which have been added to the population of the earth; while
mentally, he towers so far above the lower animals that he is
for that very reason, if for no other, classified by himself.
The mystery is how he came into possession of this high degree
of mental power with a bodily frame and a physiological constitution
so completely adapted to its exercise. Those who say that it
was exhaled in some way from the lower orders of intellectual
beings, will encounter philosophical difficulties tenfold greater
than do those who accept the simple statement of the Bible,
that his soul is the divine inbreathing--the very image of God."
"Deep in unfathomable mines
Of never-failing skill,
He treasures up his bright designs,
And works his sovereign will.
"His purposes will ripen fast,
Unfolding every hour.
The bud may have a bitter taste,
But sweet will be the flower.
"Blind unbelief is sure to err,
And scan his work in vain.
God is his own interpreter,
And he will make it plain."